Dyslexia is a language-based learning difference that is neurologically-based and interferes with the acquisition and processing of linguistic information, varying in degrees of severity. It is manifested by difficulties in single-word decoding due to a deficit in phonological processing, reading, writing, spelling and sometimes arithmetic. Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of speed of processing, short term memory, working memory, sequencing, auditory and/or visual perception, and motor skills.
Children with Dyslexia are those who, despite having average to above average intelligence, traditional classroom instruction, normal vision and hearing, and socio-cultural opportunities failed to master the basic elements of the language system of their culture. Although Dyslexia is life-long condition, children with Dyslexia will successfully respond to timely and appropriate intervention.
Definition of Dyslexia by the International Dyslexia Association (2002)
“Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.”
Definition of Dyslexia by The British Dyslexia Association (2009)
"Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling. Characteristic features of dyslexia are difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed. Dyslexia occurs across the range of intellectual abilities. It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct category, and there are no clear cut-off points. Co-occurring difficulties may be seen in aspects of language, motor co-ordination, mental calculation, concentration and personal organisation, but these are not, by themselves, markers of dyslexia. A good indication of the severity and persistence of dyslexic difficulties can be gained by examining how the individual responds or has responded to well-founded intervention.
To learn more about Dyslexia, please refer to the resource, "What is Dyslexia?" by Understood.
Check out this informative video by Embracing Dyslexia! (Viewing Time: 50:31)
Signs of Dyslexia. Retrieved September 09, 2021, from http://dyslexia.yale.edu/dyslexia/signs-of-dyslexia/
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