The Science of Reading is a body of work based on decades of research studies on how children learn to read, what happens when children struggle to learn to read, and the best reading instruction which works for children. The conclusions are supported by evidence from educational researchers and scientists who studied how reading works in the brain.
Based on brain research, here are some of the key research findings:
For more information about the Science of Reading, please view the resource, ”The Science of Reading: A Defining Guide” published by The Reading League.
This simple yet powerful scientific theory of reading by researchers Gough and Tunmer (1986) proposes that reading comprehension is the product of decoding ability and language understanding. These two skill areas are essential for reading comprehension. Decoding is the ability to apply the sound-symbol relationship to read words accurately and quickly. Language comprehension is the ability to understand spoken language.
The Simple View of Reading provides a framework of how we determine where the student is struggling and what we teach. Children with Dyslexia typically have adequate language (listening) comprehension skills but struggle with word-level reading skills. Without decoding skills, children will not be able to comprehend what they read even if their language (listening) comprehension skills are at grade level.
According to Gough and Tunmer, the most efficient path to reading comprehension success is for children to be taught decoding skills to mastery level in the early years. Most students need intense instruction toward early mastery. I value the importance of early intervention and providing explicit instruction in the essential components of literacy using the Structured Literacy and Orton-Gillingham approaches based on the Science of Reading.
For more information about the Simple View of Reading, please view the resource, "What is Reading? The Simple View" by Dr. Laura Justice
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